The US Office of Research Integrity has been posting questions on research ethics on its blog. Take a look at a couple of recent examples:
A graduate student prepares a research proposal as part of her dissertation requirements. Her faculty advisor reviews the proposal but otherwise provides only minimal assistance in developing the concept. The student later learns that her advisor has paraphrased sections of her proposal and incorporated them into his own application to a different funding agency. How should the student respond?
This one is tricky. There are very few options for the student, and they are all ugly. In a conflict between a student and her advisor, the 'system' tends to take the latter's side, and the price of calling out misconduct could be pretty high for the student. I am not at all sure how she should react.
A graduate student completes a dissertation based on research that was partly funded by a corporate sponsor. After graduation, the student is offered a job working for another corporation that competes with the first. There can be no doubt that the dissertation and experience with a competitor’s research played a role in this offer. Is there a conflict? Does it matter whether the student personally received any funding from the corporate sponsor?
This one is easy. Employees leave and join competitors of their former employers all the time. This case is no different, and there is no conflict for the student: she has already done the work for which she received stipend / payment, and it's now time to move on to the world of work -- either with the sponsor or someone else. Short of making an attractive counter-offer, all that the sponsor is entitled to is for the student to know and respect her professional / contractual obligations -- for example, non-disclosure agreements that she might have signed.