A bunch of links -- which have links to other pieces of interest.
An online panel discussion in NYTimes on Will China Achieve Science Supremacy?
Clive Cookson in The Financial Times: China scientists lead world in research growth. [Check out the graph accompanying this story: China's publications grew by more than 12 times between 1990 and 2008, while India's grew by just three times.]
And finally, an example of China's Big Think: hiring Big Guns.